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10 – Immigration, History

This series contains information on immigration history to Brazil, with a strong focus on Ukrainian immigration. Some interviews and documents describe particular migration stories, and others provide more generalized narratives. Early years in the cities and in the colonias predominate, though historical and family developments throughout the 20th centuries are included, such as secondary migration into northwest Paraná, the anti-ethnic tension in the period of World War Two, later waves of immigration, and relations with Ukraine. A subseries devoted to Ethnic Public Monuments focuses strongly on Ukrainian commemorations, but include those of neighbouring ethnic groups. Items produced as Ukrainian national symbols are collected into a separate subseries, strongly connected with materials in the series on Organized Life and on the Ukrainian churches. The subseries on Museums contains documentation of the physical structures of the museums, and overviews of their collections and presentation. If a photograph or other document focuses on a particular museum object, it is placed in the series on Settlements, Agriculture, Homelife, Organized Life, or Church Life, as most relevant. A smaller subseries is devoted to Education, and particularly Ukrainian educational materials and activities in Brazil. Documentation about general Brazilian historical culture, treated self-consciously as “heritage” is also found here (materials about old houses, historic transport, pioneering farming practices for example).

11 – Agricultural Practices

This series contains materials associated with agriculture, agricultural practices, and tools, including contemporary agriculture, as well as remnants and remembrances of practices from the past. The idea of agriculture is treated broadly here, and this series includes related traditional activities and crafts such as animal husbandry, textile making, lumbering, hunting, stonework, shoemaking, barrel making, and others. Information specifically about plants and animals is collected in a special subseries.

12 – Language

This series collects information from interviews and other sources about the Ukrainian language in Brazil. Numerous researchers and publications are dedicated to the retention and promotion of the Ukrainian language in Brazil, as well as linguistic connections with 19th century dialects and influences from Portuguese. This series includes a copy of the important linguistic field recordings of Dr. Wolodymyr Kulczynskyj. Audio examples of current language use can be found in the approximately 300 interview recordings throughout this collection.

13 – Homelife

This series contains documentation of organized community life in Ukrainian Brazilian communities. One subseries is organized to focus on secular organizations, including SUBraz, TPUK, various dance groups, choirs, and an agricultural cooperative. A second subseries is devoted to religious organizations, with a focus on Eparchial centres, convents, seminaries, and other institutions organized within the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Brazil. A smaller portion of this subseries documents the Ukrainian Orthodox church and its resources. Commercial Activities are also included in this series, recording evidence of Ukrainian-oriented stores, private enterprises, and products for sale.

14 – Organized Life

This series contains documentation of organized community life in Ukrainian Brazilian communities. One subseries is organized to focus on secular organizations, including SUBraz, TPUK, various dance groups, choirs, and an agricultural cooperative. A second subseries is devoted to religious organizations, with a focus on Eparchial centres, convents, seminaries, and other institutions organized within the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Brazil. A smaller portion of this subseries documents the Ukrainian Orthodox church and its resources. Commercial Activities are also included in this series, recording evidence of Ukrainian-oriented stores, private enterprises, and products for sale.

15 – Cemeteries

This extensive series captures scenes from cemeteries, most of them adjacent to specific Ukrainian churches. Many photographs document individual grave markers, potentially useful for research on the historical changes in funerary material culture and in genealogical studies.

16 – Church

This series has a strong focus on church architecture, with many photo essays documenting the current form of dozens of particular churches, their interiors, exteriors, and churchyards. A second strong focus is on icons, holy pictures, and religious art. A great many of the approximately 240 Ukrainian churches in Brazil were built after the 1960s, and many have been (re)painted since that time. Numerous local and international iconographers and painters have been engaged to paint them, many with strong personal styles and diverse skill levels. Numerous other holy pictures are displayed in houses, public facilities, museums, and in the artists’ studios. During the fieldwork, an explicit research interest developed in the various iconographers and painters, with dedicated interviews in several cases. This series also assembles historic information and participant observation of religious life from parishioners’ perspectives. Video recordings include church services and holiday celebrations. This series overlaps closely with the series on Calendar and Life Cycle celebrations, and with the series on organized life.

19 – Artifacts

Artifacts are assembled into a special series for logistical purposes. Items include ethnic pop art and souvenir objects, as well as occasional vernacular culture artifacts.

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